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ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Renal Transplant Dysfunction.

  • Taffel, Myles T1
  • Nikolaidis, Paul2
  • Beland, Michael D3
  • Blaufox, M Donald4
  • Dogra, Vikram S5
  • Goldfarb, Stanley6
  • Gore, John L7
  • Harvin, Howard J8
  • Heilbrun, Marta E9
  • Heller, Matthew T10
  • Khatri, Gaurav11
  • Preminger, Glenn M12
  • Purysko, Andrei S13
  • Smith, Andrew D14
  • Wang, Zhen J15
  • Weinfeld, Robert M16
  • Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J17
  • Remer, Erick M18
  • Lockhart, Mark E19
  • 1 Principal Author, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • 2 Panel Vice-chair, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 3 Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.
  • 4 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.
  • 5 University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
  • 6 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia; Pennsylvania, American Society of Nephrology.
  • 7 University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; American Urological Association.
  • 8 Scottsdale Medical Imaging, Scottsdale, Arizona.
  • 9 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
  • 10 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 11 UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
  • 12 Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; American Urological Association.
  • 13 Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 14 The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.
  • 15 University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.
  • 16 Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Troy, Michigan.
  • 17 University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • 18 Specialty Chair, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 19 Panel Chair, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
Published Article
Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
Publication Date
May 01, 2017
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacr.2017.02.034
PMID: 28473084


Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with end-stage renal disease because the 5-year survival rates range from 72% to 99%. Although graft survival has improved secondary to the introduction of newer immunosuppression drugs and the advancements in surgical technique, various complications still occur. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for the evaluation of renal transplants in the immediate postoperative period and for long-term follow-up. In addition to depicting many of the potential complications of renal transplantation, ultrasound can also guide therapeutic interventions. Nuclear medicine studies, CT, and MRI are often helpful as complementary examinations for specific indications. Angiography remains the reference standard for vascular complications and is utilized to guide nonsurgical intervention. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

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