Acne keloidalis is a primary form of scarring alopecia, and many of the histologic findings closely resemble those found in certain other forms of cicatricial alopecia. Extensive subclinical disease may be present in patients with AK and can account for some of the permanent hair loss. Overgrowth of microorganisms does not appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. There is no etiologic relationship between AK and pseudofolliculitis barbae. Therapies found to be useful in other forms of inflammatory scarring alopecia are useful in the treatment of early AK.