Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for healthcare-associated infections. The outer membrane protein A of A. baumannii (AbOmpA) is the most abundant surface protein that has been associated with the apoptosis of epithelial cells through mitochondrial targeting. The nuclear translocation of AbOmpA and the subsequent pathology on host cells were further investigated. AbOmpA directly binds to eukaryotic cells. AbOmpA translocates to the nucleus by a novel monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). The introduction of rAbOmpA into the cells or a transient expression of AbOmpA-EGFP causes the nuclear localization of these proteins, while the fusion proteins of AbOmpADeltaNLS-EGFP and AbOmpA with substitutions in residues lysine to alanine in the NLS sequences represent an exclusively cytoplasmic distribution. The nuclear translocation of AbOmpA induces cell death in vitro. Furthermore, the microinjection of rAbOmpA into the nucleus of Xenopus laevis embryos fails to develop normal embryogenesis, thus leading to embryonic death. We propose a novel pathogenic mechanism of A. baumannii regarding the nuclear targeting of the bacterial structural protein AbOmpA.