In most organs of the rat the predominant forms of glutathione S-transferase have alkaline (greater than 7.0) pI values. In contrast, in the cytosol from rat testes almost 50% of the transferase activity is due to isoenzymes with acidic (less than 7.0) pI values. We have purified three acidic forms of glutathione S-transferase from rat testis cytosol. One form accounted for more than 90% of the enzymic activity in the acidic fraction. This major form was a homodimer of a new subunit, termed Yt. This subunit had an electrophoretic mobility that was different from the subunits that form the alkaline transferases. In addition, functional and immunological studies were consistent with the unique nature of the Yt subunit. The two minor acidic enzymes of rat testis appeared to be heterodimers of the Yt subunit and a subunit with an electrophoretic mobility identical with that of the Yb subunit present in some alkaline enzymes.