An apparatus was designed that permitted acetylene reduction (N2 fixation) by root nodules to be measured in situ simultaneously with net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and transpiration of the shoot in soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Beeson). Tests showed that acetylene reduction was linear with time for at least 5 hours, except for the first 30 to 60 minutes. Endogenous ethylene production did not affect the measurements. Successive determinations of acetylene reduction could be made without apparent aftereffects on the plant.