Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP), an antipyretic drug, is an important cause of liver injury. However, the mechanism in the rat model remains undetermined. We analyzed APAP-induced hepatotoxicity using rats based on M1/M2-macrophage functions in relation to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and autophagy. Liver samples from six-week-old rats injected with APAP (1000 mg/kg BW, ip, once) after 15 h fasting were collected at hour 10, and on days 1, 2, 3, and 5. Liver lesions consisting of coagulation necrosis and inflammation were seen in the affected centrilobular area on days 1 and 2, and then, recovered with reparative fibrosis by day 5. Liver exudative enzymes increased transiently on day 1. CD68+ M1-macrophages increased significantly on days 1 and 2 with increased mRNAs of M1-related cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, whereas CD163+ M2-macrophages appeared later on days 2 and 3. Macrophages reacting to MHC class II and Iba1 showed M1-type polarization, and CD204+ macrophages tended to be polarized toward M2-type. At hour 10, interestingly, HMGB1 (representative DAMPs) and its related signals, TLR-9 and MyD88, as well as LC3B+ autophagosomes began to increase. Collectively, the pathogenesis of rat APAP hepatotoxicity, which is the first, detailed report for a rat model, might be influenced by macrophage functions of M1 type for tissue injury/inflammation and M2-type for anti-inflammatory/fibrosis; particularly, M1-type may function in relation to DAMPs and autophagy. Understanding the interplayed mechanisms would provide new insight into hepato-pathogenesis and contribute to the possible development of therapeutic strategies.