The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, and its effects on clinical, laboratory, histological findings, treatment responses and progression to end-stage renal disease in childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS). 227 children diagnosed with idiopathic NS were included in the study. Eighty-three of patients were steroid resistant and 77 of patients were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The control group was consisted of 287 unrelated healthy adult volunteers. ACE gene I/D polymorphism were analyzed by using PCR based method. In the entire group of children with NS, the frequencies of the II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene were 13.7%, 38.3% and 48%, respectively. D allele frequency was higher in NS group than control group (0.67 vs. 0.56, p=0.001). Percentage of frequent relapser patients was found more frequently in ID or DD genotype (38.7%) than II genotype (15%) when only steroid sensitive patients were evaluated (p=0.045). The D-allele frequency was 0.65, 0.69 and 0.68 respectively in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, biopsy proven minimal change and entire minimal change group (p>0.05) and 0.69 and 0.64 respectively in steroid sensitive and resistant groups (p>0.05). D allele frequency was not significantly different in patients with or without end-stage renal disease (0.64 vs. 0.67 respectively, p>0.005) when 115 patients who were at least five year follow-up were evaluated. The D allele frequency was higher in NS patients than healthy controls and DD or ID genotype was related with frequent relapses. ACE gene I/D polymorphism was not important in laboratory and histological findings and progression of the disease in children with NS.