The potential of TNT to accumulate in aquatic organisms was assessed by determining bioconcentration factors for TNT and TNT biotransformation products using two benthic invertebrates (Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus), and by determining the bioaccumulation factor of TNT and TNT biotransformation products due to TNT exposure via feeding for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In all three species, TNT was rapidly biotransformed resulting in minimal accumulation. The bioconcentration factors for parent TNT ranged from 3 to 4 ml g(-1) for the invertebrates studied, while the TNT bioaccumulation factor for catfish via oral exposure of food pellets was 2.4x10(-5) g g(-1) based on the concentration of TNT in the food pellet. As indicated by this small bioaccumulation factor, TNT accumulation in channel catfish through trophic transfer would be negligible compared to aqueous exposure (previously reported BCF of 0.79 ml g(-1)). TNT extractable biotransformation products accumulated to a greater degree than parent TNT for all three species. In addition, a large fraction of the radioactivity within all three species resisted solvent extraction. The highest bioconcentration factors occurred in L. variegatus with extractable radioactivity measuring 76 ml g(-1) and total radioactivity measuring 216 ml g(-1). Because the bioaccumulation of TNT is very low compared to the bioaccumulation of its biotransformation products, further research including identifying and determining the relative toxicities of these biotransformation products is necessary to fully evaluate the environmental risk posed by exposure to TNT.