OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether acculturation was associated with the receipt of clinical breast examinations and mammograms among Colombian, Ecuadorian, Dominican, and Puerto Rican women aged 18 to 74 years in New York City in 1992. METHODS: A bilingual, targeted, random-digit-dialed telephone survey was conducted among 908 Hispanic women from a population-based quota sample. Outcome measures included ever and recent use of clinical breast examinations and mammograms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of acculturation on screening use. RESULTS: When demographic, socioeconomic, and health system characteristics and cancer attitudes and beliefs were controlled for, women who were more acculturated had significantly higher odds of ever and recently receiving a clinical breast examination (P < or = .01) and of ever (P < or = .01) and recently (P < or = .05) receiving a mammogram than did less acculturated women. For all screening measures, there was a linear increase in the adjusted probability of being screened as a function of acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood and health system interventions to increase screening among Hispanic women should target the less acculturated.