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Accession-Level Differentiation of Urushiol Levels, and Identification of Cardanols in Nascent Emerged Poison Ivy Seedlings.

Authors
  • Lott, Aneirin A1, 2
  • Baklajian, Emily R1
  • Dickinson, Christopher C1
  • Collakova, Eva1
  • Jelesko, John G1
  • 1 School of Plant and Environmental Science, Virginia Tech, 220 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
  • 2 Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida, 255 Hull Road, Fifield Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Molecules
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Nov 20, 2019
Volume
24
Issue
23
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24234213
PMID: 31757036
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze) shows accession-level differentiation in a variety of morphometric traits, suggesting local adaptation. To investigate whether the presumed defense compound urushiol also demonstrates accession-level accumulation differences, in vitro nascent germinated poison ivy seedlings from geographically isolated populations were germinated in vitro and then assayed for known urushiol congener accumulation levels. Significant accession-level differences in the accumulation levels of total C15- and C17-, total C15-, total C17-, specific C15 congeners, and specific C17 congeners of urushiol were identified. In addition, hereto novel C15- and C17-urushiol isomers were identified as well. Cardanols are assumed to be the penultimate metabolites giving rise to urushiols, but this assumption was not previously empirically validated. C15-cardanol congeners and isomers corresponding to expected substrates needed to produce the observed C15-urushiol congeners and isomers were identified in the same poison ivy seedling extracts. Total C15-cardanol and C15-cardanol congeners also showed significant accession-level differences. Based on the observed C15-cardanol congeners in poison ivy, the penultimate step in urushiol biosynthesis was proposed to be a cardanol-specific hydroxylase activity.

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