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Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Liver Surgery and Transplantation: Pathophysiology

Authors
Journal
HPB Surgery
0894-8569
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Publication Date
Volume
2012
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1155/2012/176723
Keywords
  • Review Article
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

Liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is caused by a heavily toothed network of interactions of cells of the immune system, cytokine production, and reduced microcirculatory blood flow in the liver. These complex networks are further elaborated by multiple intracellular pathways activated by cytokines, chemokines, and danger-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, intracellular ionic disturbances and especially mitochondrial disorders play an important role leading to apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in IR injury. Overall, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, found very early in IR injury, plays an important role in liver tissue damage at several points within these complex networks. Many contributors to IR injury are only incompletely understood so far. This paper tempts to give an overview of the different mechanisms involved in the formation of IR injury. Only by further elucidation of these complex mechanisms IR injury can be understood and possible therapeutic strategies can be improved or be developed.

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