Abstract Studies of p16 alterations with homozygous deletions and mutation analysis were done in 32 patients with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) including six patients in leukemic phase. No homozygous deletions were found and, one patient was found to have a shift band in exon 2C fragment by PCR-SSCP analysis. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the mutated band was a point mutation of G to A in exon 2 codon 140 (GCG→ACG) causing an amino acid substitution of alanine to threonine demonstrating this patient either carried an mutated gene in one allele as a polymorphism (heterozygous carrier of a mutant p16 gene) or carried a mutant p16 gene clone. This study demonstrates that p16 alterations with homozygous deletions and mutations were very rare in patients with AMM. A single patient found to have a shifted band by PCR-SSCP may be represented as a coincidence or as a polymorphism with a heterozygous carrier of mutated p16 gene, predisposable to AMM or as a mutant p16 gene which can be infrequently observed in this disease.