Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the evidence for the application of botanicals and natural products to modulate several of these targets, namely, oxidation, inflammation, the skin barrier, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and DNA repair. Cosmetic formulations have been based on botanical ingredients since ancient times, and botanical and natural extracts maintain a major role in contemporary cosmetics. Present means of treating aging skin have become more technological and more invasive; however, natural products including botanicals are still relevant and can be highly efficacious. Scientific research continues to corroborate traditional uses of many plants for skin benefits, and to elucidate biochemical mechanisms of action for a growing number of phytochemicals. Additional clinical trials are necessary to optimize the application of natural ingredients for cosmetics, but scientific substantiation for the safety and efficacy of a host of botanical extracts and compounds for treating aging skin is evident, with the continued potential of many more. It is highly unlikely that science will ever identify all of the active compounds in a given plant, but it is equally unlikely that one will stop finding new activities in plants that have relevance to healthier aging. The main barrier to continued discovery might indeed be the accelerating loss of biodiversity on the planet.