The presence in soil of large numbers of a catalase-negative, microaerophilic, coccoid microorganism was demonstrated. Use of media of high nutrient value, without incorporation of inhibitors, and growth in the absence of antagonistic microorganisms were utilized to isolate this organism from soil dilutions greater than those providing growth by other means. The organism described does not grow on soil extract agars and is missed by conventional counting techniques for soil organisms. On the basis of morphological and growth characteristics, this organism appears to have at least some taxonomic relationships to the families Actinomycetaceae and Mycobacteriaceae. It is proposed that this organism makes up much of the coccoid microflora of soil as observed by light and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy.