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Absence of human papillomavirus genomic sequences detected by the polymerase chain reaction in oesophageal and gastric carcinomas in Japan.

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  • Research Article
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  • Medicine

Abstract

A Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer N at io na l C an ce r I ns tit ut e U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health A Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Esophageal cancer consists of two primary types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is more common in the United States. Men of all racial and ethnic groups have higher esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates than women. Historically, African-American men have had higher esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates than white men; however, increasing rates in white men and a steady decline among African- American men in the past decade have reversed this trend. A downward trend in mortality has not been observed for any other racial/ethnic group. Risk factors for esophageal cancer include tobacco use, alcohol use, Barrett esophagus, gastric reflux, and increasing age. Common signs of esophageal cancer include painful or difficult swallowing and weight loss. There are no standard or routine screening tests for esophageal cancer. Tests and procedures used to detect and diagnose esophageal cancer include a physical exam, chest x-ray, and a barium swallow test. Standard treatment options for esophageal cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, laser therapy, electrocoagulation, or targeted therapy. It is estimated that approximately $1.3 billion1 is spent in the United States each year on esophageal cancer treatment. Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the National Center for Health Statistics. Additional statistics and charts are available at the SEER Web site. 1 Cancer Trends Progress Report, in 2010 dollars. 2 3 2 3 White Males White FemalesOverall African-American Males African-American Females M or ta lit y pe r 1 00 ,0 00 In ci de nc e pe r 1 00 ,0 00 0 5 10 15 20

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