A discussion of the difficulties faced by minors seeking abortions was 1 of the highlights of the 1982 annual meeting of the National Abortion Federation held in May. States which have enacted parental consent laws subject teenagers seeking abortion to considerable stress. Minors who do not wish to tell their parents can seek court approval, but putting teenagers through intimidating judicial proceedings creates additional emotional burdens. In Minnesota, both parents must be notified even if only 1 has custody. In rural areas most judges are unfamiliar with the law and have even refused to hear cases requesting court authorization of abortions for minors. It is rare to be able to get through the courts and have the abortion in the same week that the pregnancy is confirmed. Delays create medical risk which will become more common as states restrict minors' access to abortion. Doctors agreed that ultrasound is useful to detect fetal abnormalities or length of gestation among abortion patients. Ultrasound also detects abnormal uterine structure and whether or not evacuation is complete. The meeting included a discussion of expanding abortion facilities for 2d trimester abortions and providing other contraceptive services, including sterilization. Some centers have added artificial insemination, birthing centers, marriage and family counseling, and even adoption services. Experts agree that tubal ligation may be a suitable procedure for offices and small clinics.