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Abnormal urethra formation in mouse models of split-hand/split-foot malformation type 1 and type 4.

Authors
  • Suzuki, Kentaro
  • Haraguchi, Ryuma
  • Ogata, Tsutomu
  • Barbieri, Ottavia
  • Alegria, Olinda
  • Vieux-Rochas, Maxence
  • Nakagata, Naomi
  • Ito, Masataka
  • Mills, Alea A
  • Kurita, Takeshi
  • Levi, Giovanni
  • Yamada, Gen
Type
Published Article
Journal
European journal of human genetics : EJHG
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2008
Volume
16
Issue
1
Pages
36–44
Identifiers
PMID: 17878916
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Urogenital birth defects are one of the common phenotypes observed in hereditary human disorders. In particular, limb malformations are often associated with urogenital developmental abnormalities, as the case for Hand-foot-genital syndrome displaying similar hypoplasia/agenesis of limbs and external genitalia. Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a syndromic limb disorder affecting the central rays of the autopod with median clefts of the hands and feet, missing central fingers and often fusion of the remaining ones. SHFM type 1 (SHFM1) is linked to genomic deletions or rearrangements, which includes the distal-less-related homeogenes DLX5 and DLX6 as well as DSS1. SHFM type 4 (SHFM4) is associated with mutations in p63, which encodes a p53-related transcription factor. To understand that SHFM is associated with urogenital birth defects, we performed gene expression analysis and gene knockout mouse model analyses. We show here that Dlx5, Dlx6, p63 and Bmp7, one of the p63 downstream candidate genes, are all expressed in the developing urethral plate (UP) and that targeted inactivation of these genes in the mouse results in UP defects leading to abnormal urethra formation. These results suggested that different set of transcription factors and growth factor genes play similar developmental functions during embryonic urethra formation. Human SHFM syndromes display multiple phenotypes with variations in addition to split hand foot limb phenotype. These results suggest that different genes associated with human SHFM could also be involved in the aetiogenesis of hypospadias pointing toward a common molecular origin of these congenital malformations.

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