A descriptive study was performed in a population of 181 chronic diabetic patients or both sexes from the medical office No. 2, Chillán with the aim of determining their self-care capacities and factors related to this capacity. A self-care capacity scale based on a study about requirements and self-care capabilities developed by Joan E. Backacneider, was made up. This scale was applied with the purpose of measuring physical, medical, emotional, and motivational capabilities, as well as health orientation for the diabetic patient. Results obtained suggest that only 18.3% of these patients have a high self-care capacity, while 81.7% does not have this kind of capacity. Also it is concluded that factors associated with this self-care capability in these patients are self-confidence, schooling level, occupational status, and social and economic situation.