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ABI5 binding protein2 inhibits ABA responses during germination without ABA-INSENSITIVE5 degradation.

  • Lynch, Tim
  • Née, Guillaume
  • Chu, Avan
  • Krüger, Thorben
  • Finkemeier, Iris
  • Finkelstein, Ruth R
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2022
eScholarship - University of California
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Overexpression of ABA-INSENSITIVE5 binding proteins (AFPs) results in extreme ABA resistance of seeds and failure to acquire desiccation tolerance, at least in part through effects on chromatin modification. We tested the hypothesis that AFPs promote germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by also functioning as adapters for E3 ligases that ubiquitinate ABI5, leading to its degradation. Interactions between AFPs and two well-characterized classes of E3 ligases targeting ABI5, DWD HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA (DWA)s and KEEP ON GOING, were analyzed by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and genetic assays. Although weak direct interactions were detected between AFPs and E3 ligases, loss of function for these E3 ligases did not impair ABA-resistance conferred by overexpression of the YFP-AFP2 fusion. Comparison of ABI5 and AFP2 levels in these lines showed that AFP2 accumulation increased during germination, but that ABI5 degradation followed germination, demonstrating that AFP2 overexpression reduces ABA sensitivity, thereby permitting germination prior to ABI5 degradation. Surprisingly, AFP2 overexpression in the dwa1 dwa2 mutant background produced the unusual combination of extreme ABA resistance and desiccation tolerance, creating an opportunity to separate the underlying biochemical characteristics of ABA sensitivity and desiccation tolerance. Our quantitative proteomics analysis identified at least three-fold more differentially accumulated seed proteins than previous studies. Comparison of dry seed proteomes of wild-type or dwa1 dwa2 mutants with or without AFP2 overexpression allowed us to separate and refine the changes in protein accumulation patterns associated with desiccation tolerance independently of ABA sensitivity, or vice versa, to a subset of cold-induced and defense stress-responsive proteins and signaling regulators.

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