Objective The purpose of the current study was to investigate chemotherapy-related variations in the intrinsic static and dynamic functional connectivity (sFC and dFC, respectively) of the executive control network (ECN) in lung cancer patients. Materials and methods In this study, we evaluated 18 lung cancer patients scanned before and after adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and compared the patients with 21 healthy controls (HCs). All subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). We constructed the sFC and dFC of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using a sliding-window approach, and the correlations between the changed sFC or dFC and cognitive performance were analyzed. Results Whole-brain sFC analysis showed that the lung cancer patients showed significant FC pattern changes in the bilateral DLPFC, mainly in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobe and the right insula. Furthermore, after chemotherapy, the lung cancer patients showed significantly reduced dFC variability between the right DLPFC and right precuneus compared with HCs. In addition, the decreased dFC between the right DLPFC and left SFG in the lung cancer patients after chemotherapy in state 1 and between the right DLPFC and left insula in the lung cancer patients before chemotherapy in state 2 were negatively correlated with MoCA scores ((r = -0.520, p = 0.039; r = -0.548, p = 0.028, respectively). Conclusions Our results reveal that dynamic connectivity analysis is more effective and sensitive than methods that assume static brain states for linking brain FC patterns and chemotherapy.