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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет"
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  • Metalinguistic Consciousness
  • Borrowing
  • Evaluation
  • Communication
  • Linguistics
  • Logic
  • Psychology


A great number of foreign borrowings constantly penetrate the Russian language. Thus the thorough investigation of the metalinguistic reflection of borrowings in the consciousness of Russian native speakers is very important. Emotional evaluation of borrowings is one of the ways of metalingustic consciousness expression, which can be found in different types of discourse - in the Internet communication, newspapers or spoken language. The analysis of the main means of expressing evaluation (metaoperators) in every discourse, reasons of its expression and structural organization of metalinguistic phrases enables to define the general aspects and particular characteristics typical to each type of discourse. On the basis of verbal metaoperators metalinguistic expressions with emotional evaluation have been classified into two groups: sensor-psychological, including emotional and intellectual subtypes, and sublimational. The diversity of emotional metaoperators shows that the evaluation function of the metalinguistic consciousness of Russian speakers towards borrowings is strongly realized. The metalanguage of Internet communicators is the most emotional and expressive. The subject in the metalinguistic phrases taken from the Internet is strongly presented by means of personal pronouns or expressions that show personal attitude towards the borrowing. These structures indicate the active state of the Russian speakers consciousness. In spoken speech, verbal presentation of metalinguistic consciousness does not frequently occur. However, the communicator often uses nonverbal ways of metalinguistic expression such as laughter, gestures or mimicry. The metalanguage of the newspaper discourse takes an intermediate position between the Internet and spoken language. In most cases the writer estimates the level of correspondence of the word itself to the object or phenomenon named by the word. As a rule, metalinguistic expressions in the newspapers do not have the indication of the person of evaluation. In all the analysed types of discourse negative evaluations of borrowings dominate and make up two thirds of all the regarded metalinguistic phrases. Negative evaluation is frequently caused by deviation from the accepted norms of the Russian language or unreasonable use of borrowed words. Utilitarian characteristics of borrowings are subjected to both negative and positive evaluations. The variety and emotionality of the metalinguistic phrases that express evaluation shows the reasons of rejection or adoption of foreign vocabulary in the Russian language. It also demonstrates defence reactions of the metalinguistic consciousness of native speakers, which regulate the penetration of borrowings into the Russian language.

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