The concept of bone quality describes the sets of the characteristics of the osseous tissue that influence bone strength. The aim was to explore the influence of anthropometric parameters and age on the parameters of the bone architecture and bone mineral properties in the lumbar vertebral bone of men and women. Vertebral bone samples underwent bone histomorphometry, bone densitometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Men have greater values of the bone volume and thicker bone trabeculae in relation to women, which indicates that vertebral bone architecture is better preserved in men than in women. Age is the best predictor of changes that affect bone architecture and bone mineral properties. Bone mineral density value and calcium concentration are both negatively predicted by age, but positively predicted by boda mass index. Such result supports the opinion that low body mass index is associated with conditions of bone deficit such are osteopenia and osteoporosis.