Abstract This paper presents the results of a nationwide research needs assessment of the important wildlife–human conflict issues and associated research needs of the USDA/APHIS-Wildlife Services (WS) program and its stakeholders. Thirty-six WS State Directors, 23 WS/National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) scientists and 6 members of the National Wildlife Services Advisory Committee (NWSAC) to the US Secretary of Agriculture responded to a request for participation. This paper compares these current research needs with previous regional and national research needs assessments for wildlife damage management in the United States. Important national problems identified included issues related to aviation, timber, agriculture, aquaculture, and livestock industries, as well as wildlife-borne diseases, invasive species, and overabundant wildlife populations. This assessment provides useful input, along with legislative and administrative guidance, to NWRC for allocating resources to specific research projects that address the WS program's needs for knowledge and new methods.