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Importance of MAP Kinases during Protoperithecial Morphogenesis in Neurospora crassa

Authors
Journal
PLoS ONE
1932-6203
Publisher
Public Library of Science
Publication Date
Volume
7
Issue
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042565
Keywords
  • Research Article
  • Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Morphogenesis
  • Sexual Differentiation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Fertilization
  • Microbial Growth And Development
  • Genetics
  • Genomics
  • Functional Genomics
  • Microbiology
  • Mycology
  • Fungal Reproduction
  • Fungal Structure
  • Fungi
  • Spores
  • Model Organisms
  • Yeast And Fungal Models
  • Neurospora Crassa
  • Molecular Cell Biology
  • Cellular Types
  • Eukaryotic Cells
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Extracellular Matrix Adhesions
  • Signal Transduction
  • Signaling Pathways
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cytoplasmic Streaming
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

In order to produce multicellular structures filamentous fungi combine various morphogenetic programs that are fundamentally different from those used by plants and animals. The perithecium, the female sexual fruitbody of Neurospora crassa, differentiates from the vegetative mycelium in distinct morphological stages, and represents one of the more complex multicellular structures produced by fungi. In this study we defined the stages of protoperithecial morphogenesis in the N. crassa wild type in greater detail than has previously been described; compared protoperithecial morphogenesis in gene-deletion mutants of all nine mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases conserved in N. crassa; confirmed that all three MAP kinase cascades are required for sexual development; and showed that the three different cascades each have distinctly different functions during this process. However, only MAP kinases equivalent to the budding yeast pheromone response and cell wall integrity pathways, but not the osmoregulatory pathway, were essential for vegetative cell fusion. Evidence was obtained for MAP kinase signaling cascades performing roles in extracellular matrix deposition, hyphal adhesion, and envelopment during the construction of fertilizable protoperithecia.

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