Abstract In this paper, the mean-square and mean-module filtering problems for polynomial system states over polynomial observations are studied proceeding from the general expression for the stochastic Ito differentials of the estimate and the error variance. The paper deals with the general case of nonlinear polynomial states and observations. As a result, the Ito differentials for the estimates and error variances corresponding to the stated filtering problems are first derived. The procedure for obtaining an approximate closed-form finite-dimensional system of the sliding mode filtering equations for any polynomial state over observations with any polynomial drift is then established. In the examples, the obtained sliding mode filters are applied to solve the third-order sensor filtering problems for a quadratic state, assuming a conditionally Gaussian initial condition for the extended second-order state vector. The simulation results show that the designed sliding mode filters yield reliable and rapidly converging estimates.