Abstract Human serum proteins and their fragments, associated with hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate (HEMA-MMA) copolymer microcapsules, were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis. Capsules were incubated with serum for 1 week in vitro and then dissolved in ethanol to also precipitate the adsorbed protein. The precipitate was dissolved in 2% (w/v) SDS (the ‘capsule eluate’) to be assayed by electrophoresis. The majority of proteins probed for in the immunoblots were detected in the capsule eluates. These included fibronectin, plasminogen, IgG, vitronectin, Factor B, Factor H, Factor I, C3, but not β-lipoprotein, fibrinogen, HMWK, or IgM. Complement activation fragments were detected in both the immunoblots of the capsule eluates and the medium containing serum without capsules. Thus, the adsorption of these fragments, formed independent of capsule presence, may be partially or completely responsible for the complement fragments associated with capsules. The prevention of complement activation by the addition of 5.8 mM EDTA, at the begining of the week-long incubation, resulted in fewer low-molecular-weight C3 fragments associated with capsules. Rat proteins were also detected in immunoblots of the eluate of ‘free-floating’ capsules from the rat peritoneal cavity following implantation for 1 day using anti-human antibodies. Detected proteins included HMWK, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, transferrin, α 1-antitrypsin, fibronectin, albumin, α 2-macroglobulin, vitronectin, β 2-microglobulin, Factor B and Factor I. Rat fibrinogen, IgG, and complement C3 fragments were also detected in these immunoblots, but with monoclonal antibodies against the rat proteins.