Abstract Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a prevalent acute disease that occurs in patients infected by an arbovirus in tropical and subtropical regions. We have previously shown increased intraplatelet nitric oxide (NO) production in patients with dengue fever associated with reduced platelet aggregation. In this study, l-arginine transport as well as expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in the presence or absence of l-arginine analogues were examined in 23 DHF patients. l-arginine transport and NOS activity in platelets were increased in patients with DHF compared with controls. However, platelet endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) protein levels did not differ between healthy controls and DHF patients. Endogenous or exogenous analogues did not inhibit platelet NOS activity from DHF patients. In contrast, endogenous l-arginine analogues [NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)] inhibited NOS activity in platelets from healthy subjects. These results show the first evidence that the intraplatelet l-arginine–NO pathway is activated in DHF patients. The lack of inhibition of NO formation in vitro by all l-arginine analogues tested in DHF platelets may suggest another mechanism by which NOS activity can be regulated.