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Chemical characterization of ambient particulate matter near the World Trade Center: Source apportionment using organic and inorganic source markers

Authors
Journal
Atmospheric Environment
1352-2310
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
42
Issue
31
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.007
Keywords
  • World Trade Center
  • Receptor Modeling
  • Source Apportionment
  • Building Fire

Abstract

Abstract Concentrations of alkanes (C20–C35), 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH ketones, and three hopanes are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) (three of the locations within 300 m of the debris pile). The highest concentrations of individual PAHs across the four locations were for fluoranthene (10.3 ng/m 3 at site W), pyrene (8.7 ng/m 3 at site W), and chrysene (6.2 ng/m 3 at site W). The EPA Unmix Version 6.0 receptor model was used to estimate the impact of WTC fires and recovery efforts on ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. Five factors were identified: open burning of building debris, smoldering fires from building debris, a mixed recovery source, a sulfate/debris removal source, and motor vehicle exhaust.

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