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A true random number generator for crypto embedded systems

School of Postgraduate Studies, UTM
Publication Date
  • Tk Electrical Engineering. Electronics Nuclear Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Design
  • Mathematics


In this paper, we design a true random number generator (TRNG) in hardware which is targeted for FPGA-based crypto embedded systems. All crypto protocols require the generation and use of secret values that must be unknown to attackers. Random number generators (RNG) are required to generate public/private key pairs for asymmetric algorithm such as RSA and symmetric algorithm such as AES. Since security protocols rely on the unpredictability of the keys they use, RNGs for crypto applications must meet stringent requirements. The most important in cryptography is that attackers must not be able to make any useful predictions about the RNG outputs. The TRNG employs internal analog phase-locked loop (PLL) circuitry to generate a noise which is useful in producing random output. In contrast with traditionally used free running oscillators, it uses a novel method of random noise extraction based on two rationally related synthesized clock signals. The digital design is extremely compact and can be implemented on any advance FPGA device equipped with analog PLL. With the help of this TRNG, the cryptographic implementations such as key generation, authentication protocols, digital signature schemes and even in some encryption algorithm can be secure enough from being abused by malicious act.

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