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Clustering and synchrony in laying hens: The effect of environmental resources on social dynamics

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  • Laying Hens Generally Choose To Aggregate
  • But The Extent To Which The Environments In Which We House Them Impact On Social Group Dynamics Is N
  • In This Paper The Effect Of Pen Environment On Spatial Clustering Is Considered
  • Twelve Groups Of Four Laying Hens Were Studied Under Three Environmental Conditions: Wire Floor (W)
  • Shavings (Sh) And Perches
  • Peat
  • Nestbox And Shavings (Ppn)
  • Groups Experienced Each Environment Twice
  • For Five Weeks Each Time
  • In A Systematic Order That Varied From Group To Group
  • Video Recordings Were Made One Day Per Week For 30 Weeks
  • To Determine Level Of Clustering
  • We Recorded Positional Data From A Randomly Selected 20-Min Excerpt Per Video (A Total Of 20 Min X 3
  • On Screen
  • Pens Were Divided Into Six Equal Areas
  • In Addition
  • Ppn Pens Were Divided Into An Additional Four (Sub) Areas
  • To Account For The Use Of Perches (One Area Per Half Perch)
  • Every 5 S
  • We Recorded The Location Of Each Bird And Calculated Location Use Over Time
  • Feeding Synchrony And Cluster Scores For Each Environment
  • Feeding Synchrony And Cluster Scores Were Compared Against Unweighted And Weighted (According To Obs
  • Biology
  • Medicine


1 Ludwig Eichinger and Francisco Rivero (eds.), Dictyostelium discoideum Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology 983, DOI 10.1007/978-1-62703-302-2_1, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013 Chapter 1 The Amoebozoa Christina Schilde and Pauline Schaap Abstract The model organism Dictyostelium discoideum is a member of the Amoebozoa, one of the six major divisions of eukaryotes. Amoebozoa comprise a wide variety of amoeboid and fl agellate organisms with single cells measuring from 5 μ m to several meters across. They have adopted many different life styles and sexual behaviors and can live in all but the most extreme environments. This chapter provides an overview of Amoebozoan diversity and compares roads towards multicellularity within the Amoebozoa with inven- tions of multicellularity in other protist divisions. The chapter closes with a scenario for the evolution of Dictyostelid multicellularity from an Amoebozoan stress response. Key words Amoebozoa , Protista , Aggregative multicellularity , Encystation , Sporulation , Morphogenesis , Cyclic AMP signaling , Phylogeny The Dictyostelids have fascinated biologists for over 150 years with their ability to assemble up to a million amoebas into a tactile migrating organism, which, after seeking out a site for spore dis- persal, transforms into a well-balanced fruiting structure. The development of a range of molecular genetic and cell biological procedures for the species Dictyostelium discoideum over the past 30 years has established this species as an important model organ- ism for the study of fundamental cell biological and developmental processes ( 1 ) . More recently, the evolution of social behavior and the study of genes associated with human diseases and bacterial infections have been added to the repertoire of research questions that can be addressed in Dictyostelia ( 2 ) . With putative applications of research in mind,

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