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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет"
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  • Pilgrimage
  • Plot
  • Religious Motives
  • Literary Traditions
  • Literature


The pilgrim literature as a phenomenon of Russian culture appears, as a matter of fact, simultaneously with the religious phenomenon which lies in its basis. In the Old Russian literature pilgrim compositions were initially created on the basis of translation samples (among which researchers specify proskinitariy, itinerariy, diegisis). By the 12th century a special genre hozhenie is formed. In the course of the literary process this genre undergoes changes connected with various historical and cultural processes, with influence of secular travel (which is especially appreciable in the 18th century) and other factors, which in the beginning of the 19th century led to occurrence of a special synthetic literary form pilgrimage to Holy sites, which A.N. Muravyov embodied in his works. Muravyov creates some products on the basis of this genre model. In the centre of our attention was The Pilgrimage to Holy Sites in 1830, thematically close to the classical samples of the genre. When creating this work Muravyov intentionally addresses to the literary tradition of pilgrim texts formed throughout several centuries. The writer supplements the third edition of The Pilgrimage with The Review of Russian Travel to the Holy Land where he gives analytical judgement of development of the Russian pilgrim literature, from Ancient Russia up to the beginning of the 19th century. Muravyov approaches to this question with scientific accuracy - he compares different lists of Old Russian texts (from Imperial and Synod libraries), verifies the citation, makes comments on errors of modern publishers. Symptomatically, having access to the majority of Old Russian monuments of literature on travels, and to pilgrim compositions written by ecclesiastics in the 18th century (at that time it was not accessible to everyone), Muravyov is strictly limited by the circle of the analyzed texts. In The Review his attention is concentrated on Hozhenie of abbot Daniel, Zhitie of Evfrosinya Polotskaya, The Wanderer on my travel and my life by Zosima, Travel of Trifon Korobeynikov by V. Pozdnyakov, Vasily Gagarys Travel, A. Sukhanovs Proskinitariy, notes by S.I. Pleshcheev, and Travel by Meletiy, Wandering around East Holy Sites by V. Grigorovich-Barsky and The Fragment from Travel across Greece and Palestin in 1820 by D.V. Dashkov. Each of these products possesses, according to Muravyov, sign features. For this reason, Muravyov does not solve the problem of describing many texts; his purpose is to select the key products reflecting the dynamics of development of the pilgrim literature and the phenomenon of pilgrimage. In this selection it is possible to track the logic of the authors thought, to allocate the basic reference points. Having attentively studied key texts, in The Review Muravyov creates an original model of a pilgrim plot, which becomes the basis of art judgement of this theme in The Pilgrimage. Following the spiritual tradition of hozhenie and the secular tradition of travel, Muravyov gives a new interpretation of the pilgrim plot. The deepest religious feeling penetrates his work; it combines with the analytic features of a secular observer carefully investigating and estimating what he has seen. Thus, the two types of attitude do not conflict with each other, and harmoniously co-exist in consciousness of the narrating hero, creating a complete representation of the sacred space.

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