To evaluate the ability of Streptomyces sp. (strain ASBV-1) to restrict aflatoxin accumulation in peanut grains. In the control of many phytopathogenic fungi the Streptomyces sp. ASBV-1 strain showed promise. An inhibitory test using this strain and A. parasiticus was conducted in peanut grains to evaluate the effects of this interaction on spore viability and aflatoxin accumulation. In some treatments the Streptomyces sp ASBV-1 strain reduced the viability of A. parasiticus spores by c. 85%, and inhibited aflatoxin accumulation in peanut grains. The values of these reductions ranged from 63 to 98% and from 67% to 96% for aflatoxins B(1) and G(1), respectively. It was demonstrated that Streptomyces sp. ASBV-1 is able to colonize peanut grains and thus inhibit the spore viability of A. parasiticus, as well as reducing aflatoxin production. The positive finding for aflatoxin accumulation reduction in peanut grains seems promising and suggests a wider use of this actinobacteria in biological control programmes.