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Incidence of breast and nipple abnormalities among primigravid women in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka College of Paediatricians
Publication Date
  • Paediatrics
  • Incidence
  • Breast And Nipple Abnormalities
  • Primigravid Women
  • Sri Lanka
  • Medicine


Objective To determine the incidence of breast and nipple abnormalities among primigravid women and their effects on lactation in Sri Lanka. Design Prospective descriptive survey. Method All primigravid women attending antenatal clinics of the university obstetric unit, giving informed consent, were recruited into the study. Their breasts were examined clinically and breast abnormalities noted. They were followed up until successful lactation was established. Results 956 mothers were examined. 768 had normal breasts and 188 abnormalities were noted. 725 completed the study. 72.5% established successful lactation. 80 had flat nipples of whom 52 completed the study. 44 flat nipples were corrected antenatally with exercises. All established lactation successfully. Other abnormalities included breast surgery, hypoplastic breasts or breast asymmetry. 9.8% of women with breast/nipple abnormalities failed to establish lactation. Conclusion Large majority (84.6%) of flat non protractile nipples are correctable with antenatal exercises. Key words: incidence, breast and nipple abnormalities, primigravid women, Sri LankaDOI = 10.4038/sljch.v35i2.14 Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2006; 35: 51-4

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