Background In recent years, the number of people with metabolic syndrome has continued to rise because of changing eating habits, and accompanying hepatic steatosis patients have also increased. This study examined the effect of guava leaf extract on liver fat accumulation using SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a metabolic syndrome model animal. Method Seven-week-old male SHRSP/ZF rats were divided into two groups, a control group and a guava leaf extract (GLE) group. We gave 2 g/kg/day GLE or water by forced administration for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and organ weight, hepatic lipids, serum aminotransferase and liver pathology were examined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzyme and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation. Results The triglyceride content of the liver significantly decreased in the GLE group in comparison with the control group, and decreased fat-drop formation in the liver tissue graft in the GLE group was observed. In addition, the improvement of liver organization impairments with fat accumulation restriction was suggested because blood AST and ALT in the GLE group significantly decreased. Furthermore, it was supposed that the activity of AMPK and PPARα significantly increased in the GLE group via the increase of adiponectin receptors. These were thought to be associated with the decrease of the triglyceride content in the liver because AMPK and PPARα in liver tissue control energy metabolism or lipid composition. On the other hand, insulin resistance was suggested to have improved by the fatty liver improvement in GLE. Conclusion Our results indicate that administration of GLE may have preventive effects of hepatic accumulation and ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance by enhancing the adiponectin beta-oxidation system. Guava leaf may be potentially useful for hepatic steatosis without the side effects of long-term treatments.