Abstract The platelet aggregation inhibitor purified from Agkistrodon halys snake venom inhibited rabbit platelet aggregations induced by thrombin, sodium arachidonate, collagen or ionophore A-23187. The ic 50 was about 11 μg/ml in platelet aggregation regardless of which aggregation inducer was used. β-Mercaptoethanol abolished both the phospholipase A enzymatic and platelet aggregation inhibitory activities of this venom inhibitor. p-Bromophenacyl bromide-treated venom inhibitor lost almost completely its phosphilipase A enzymatic activity, but retained its platelet aggregation inhibitory effect. In the presence of EGTA, the venom inhibitor still showed the same inhibitory activity on thrombin-, sodium arachidonate-, collagen- or ionophore A23187-induced platelet aggregations triggered by successive addition of Ca 2+. The activation of platelet phospholipase A and the serotonin release reaction triggered by Ca 2+ influx were unaffected by this venom inhibitor. It also inhibited the clot retraction of platelet-rich plasma. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of the venom inhibitor on platelet aggregation is independent of its phospholipase A enzymatic activity. Its mode of action is different from those of other known platelet inhibitory drugs. This venom inhibitor possibly acts on a common step subsequent to platelet shape change, leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation.