Economic growth and modernization are widely held to be the antidote to global poverty, but what if they actually contribute to the problem? A parallel question is whether poverty alleviation and eradication that have been used interchangeably are, in fact, the same. On the first question, extant theories, ranging from modernization to dependency, are limited in delivering a poverty-free world, and, in some cases, have been more the problem than the solution. On the second question, poverty alleviation and eradication derive from different theoretical interests. Alleviation measures, such as market-based solutions, are limited by profit-maximizing objectives of enterprise. In contrast, poverty eradication entails a radical transformation of the poor to become self-reliant. To meet this requirement, communitarian initiatives anchored on a different valuation, management, and organizational systems are proposed.