Background Dominant theories of working conditions and their effects on poor employee health have been criticized for failing to consider how psychosocial factors interact and how such relationships may differ across occupational groups. Goal This paper examines the associations between psychosocial factors and physical and psychological health complaints while at the same time taking into account differences between occupational groups in female-dominated professions. Method Four female-dominated occupational groups were included: nurses, health care assistants, cleaners, and dairy industry workers. The relationships between influence, emotional and quantitative demands, social support, back pain, and behavioural stress were examined using structural equation modelling. Results Results supported a group-specific model: the overall pattern remained the same across groups while psychosocial factors had different impacts on poor health and interacted differently across groups. The results also indicated links between psychosocial factors and poor physical health. Conclusion The study confirmed the importance of differentiating between female-dominated occupations rather than talking about women’s working conditions as such. The study also emphasized the importance of considering psychosocial risk factors when examining physical health, in this case back pain.