Abstract Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of a new neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) docetaxel-based regimen in patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head or body. Patients and methods 34 patients with histologically-confirmed resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included in this prospective two-center phase II study. Radiotherapy was delivered at the dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy per fractions, 5 days/week, over 5 weeks. Docetaxel was administered as a 1-h intravenous (IV) infusion repeated every week during 5 weeks. The dose was 30 mg/m 2/week. All patients were restaged after completion of CRT. Results Tumor progression was documented in 11 patients (32%), stable disease was documented in 20 patients (59%), and partial remission was documented in 3 patients (9%). 23 patients still with local disease at restaging underwent explorative laparotomy. Of this, 17 patients (50%) had a curative pancreaticoduodenectomy with lymphadenectomy. Morbidity and mortality rates were 29% and 0%, respectively. Three patients (17%) had complete histological responses and 5 patients had minimal residual disease. All resected patients ( n = 17) underwent R0 resection. The median and five-year survival times for the resected patients were 32 months and 41%, respectively. Among the resected patients, ten (59%) died as a result of recurrent pancreatic cancer without local tumor bed recurrence. Conclusions Neoadjuvant docetaxel-based chemoradiation is well-tolerated. Resected patients had a prolonged survival time. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and determine the role of such a neoadjuvant approach.