Abstract Identifying the source, origin and time of emplacement of copper and gold deposits in the Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary and plutonic series of southern Brazil is a longstanding research goal. In this geological context, the Camaquã and Lavras do Sul areas are reported to be a post-collisional domain related to the Braziliano–Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. This study focused on the Uruguay open-pit mine through a detailed assessment of the mineralogy, geochemistry and (S, O, H and C) stable isotopes of pyrite, chalcopyrite, clay minerals and carbonates as veins or disseminated sulfides in sedimentary rocks. The results indicate that the Camaquã mine is a low-sulfidation epithermal-type deposit with sulfide precipitations related to a mixture of magmatic (δ34S=1 to 4‰; δ18O: 3 to 9‰) and meteoric waters (δ18O=−4 to −12‰) and a temperature varying from 350 to 80°C. Ore precipitation is associated with sequential sulfide crystallization exhausting the S magmatic source.