Summary Post-exposure prophylaxis, also known as post-exposure treatment, is the combination of suitable methods to inactivate rabies virus locally by physical and chemical methods and by specific immunoglobulin, and to prevent spreading of the virus by passively applied immunoglobulin and active antibody formation through vaccination. In addition to these measures, officially recommended by WHO, passive and active interferonization can be considered as a method of preventing early replication of the virus. Different rabies vaccines for man which are actually in use are briefly described, with special regard to efficacy and reactogenicity. Most successful results have been obtained with the human diploid cell vaccine. Some characteristics of the humoral immune response to this vaccine are presented and some reports on severe adverse reactions and possible «breakthough shall be critically discussed.