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Glaciological and geological results of the Hamburg Spitsbergen-expedition of 1927

Elsevier Science & Technology
DOI: 10.1016/s1571-0866(04)80099-x
  • Earth Science


Publisher Summary This chapter presents glaciological and geological results of the Hamburg Spitsbergen-expedition of 1927. In Spitsbergen, frost cracks were found more than once in young soils. In northern Germany, narrow disturbances in Diluvial sands and spaced 25–40 m, are explained as frostcrack-casts. Ice movement is only partly a result of plasticity; it is mainly occurring over parallel shearplanes. The regular, parallel shearplanes occur frequently at the sides and in the deeper part of the ice. The deepest debris-rich part of the glacier is often free of shearplanes. These deeper ice layers are not plastically deformed. At Penckbreen, it could be demonstrated that the deepest shearplane was always involved in a downglacier directed fold. Endmoraine systems are more likely constructed during the many shifts of the ice front. During an advance, the glacier more or less clears out its forefield. The material thus transported is piled up into moraines. These then are not the result of expelling until at the front, but by bulldozing the loose material in front of the ice. As the debris is bulldozed between the ice and the forefield or between the ice and an older moraine, the Staumoräne is replaced by Stauchmoräne.

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