The reconstitution of membrane proteins into liposomes is a useful tool to prepare antigenic components that induce immunity. We have investigated the influence of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol molar ratio on the incorporation of a GPI-protein from Leishmania amazonensis on liposomes and Langmuir monolayers. The latter system is a well behaved and practical model, for understanding the effect of variables such as surface composition and lipid packing on protein incorporation. We have found that the DPPC/cholesterol molar ratio significantly alters the incorporation of the GPI-protein. In the absence of cholesterol, reconstitution is more difficult and proteoliposomes cannot be prepared, which we correlated with disruption of the DPPC layer. Our results provide important information that Could be employed in the development of a vaccine system for this disease or be used to produce other GPI-systems for biotechnological application. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.