Objective To evaluate controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women with cancer compared with healthy women. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Academic assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. Patient(s) Fifty women undergoing oocyte retrieval before cancer treatment and 50 age-matched controls. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Number of oocytes and matured oocytes retrieved, number of fertilized oocytes, days of stimulation, dose of gonadotropins. Result(s) There were no significant differences in the number of oocytes retrieved (13 vs. 11.5), the number of matured oocytes retrieved (9.7 vs. 9.6), and the number of oocytes fertilized (7.4 vs. 6.8). However, the patients with cancer had a longer duration of stimulation (10.5 vs. 9.0 days) and higher total dose of gonadotropins (4,174 IU vs. 3,416 IU). Conclusion(s) In our study, reasonable ovarian response was achieved by women with cancer with increased doses of gonadotropins and a longer duration of stimulation.