Abstract The kinetics of serum levels of circulating anodic antigen (CAA) of Schistosoma mansoni were studied in patients with intestinal schistosomiasis before and after treatment with praziquantel. Day to day fluctuation in faecal egg excretion was compared with fluctuation in antigen level in 20 patients by serum and stool examination on 3 consecutive days before treatment. Antigen levels — calculated either as absorbance value of undiluted serum or as titre — showed less fluctuation than the number of eggs per gram of faeces determined by stool examinations based on single or duplicate 25 mg Kato smears. Compared with a placebo control group of 11 individuals, there was a significant reduction in CAA level in serum of 10 patients treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg), 10 weeks after treatment. A similar decrease in serum CAA level was observed in a group of 46 patients treated with praziquantel, 6 weeks after treatment. In both groups, patients who remained seropositive after treatment still excreted eggs in their faeces. The kinetics of the antigen decrease were studied in more detail in 20 patients in hospital. Within 10 d after treatment with a double dose of 40 mg praziquantel per kg body weight, the antigen level fell to less than 10% of the original serum level, with a CAA half-life of approximately 2 d.