Two lambda gt11 clones containing fragments of cDNA encoding the rabbit progesterone receptor were isolated with the aid of monoclonal and monospecific polyclonal antireceptor antibodies. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the corresponding mRNA was approximately equal to 5900 nucleotides in size and present in the uterus, where its concentration was increased by estrogen treatment, and in the vagina. This mRNA was not detected in liver, in spleen, in intestine, and in kidney where the receptor protein is known to be absent or present in very small concentration. Cross-hybridizing clones were isolated from a lambda 10 library. The DNA was sequenced, and the primary structure of the progesterone receptor was deduced. It consists of 930 amino acids and contains a basic, cysteine-rich region (residues 568-645) with extensive homology to the glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors and the v-erbA oncogene protein. This region is followed by a C-terminal domain that is similar in size to the corresponding domains of the other steroid receptors and v-erbA and shows striking amino acid homology with the glucocorticoid receptor and significant homology with the estrogen receptor. In contrast, the region extending from the cysteine-rich segment toward the N terminus differed in size and amino acid sequence from that of the other receptors and v-erbA. This region had a high proline content in the progesterone receptor.