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Auditing non-hazardous wastes from golf course operations: moving from a waste to a sustainability framework

Authors
Journal
Resources Conservation and Recycling
0921-3449
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
37
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/s0921-3449(02)00077-0
Keywords
  • Environmental Audit
  • Bench Mark
  • Solid Waste
  • Golf Course
  • Sustainability

Abstract

Abstract This paper provides non-hazardous solid waste audit procedures and bench mark audit data for golf courses (GCs). The paper also demonstrates the narrow scope of solid waste audit data, and the need to move towards a broader auditing scope such as that contained in sustainability auditing frameworks. A case study of Clear Lake Golf Course, located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada was completed. Annual waste generation rates at the GC were estimated to be 46.2 tonnes/year with 83% of this material compostable. Grass clipping material generated from the putting greens accounted for 79% of the waste stream. The GC achieved a solid waste diversion rate of 81% (waste generated not destined for landfill per total waste material generated). A future, realistic target of 97% diversion was also identified. The 7 day audit period was found to be unsuitable for estimating grass clipping generation rates. Implementation of a broader sustainability framework for future audits will harmonize many existing management functions such as solid waste auditing, waste characterizations, pollution prevention, green procurement, customer satisfaction, and the efficiency of the operations.

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