Abstract Given the abundance of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) components in the brain, their importance in behavior and cognition, and the data that implicates them in the etiology and treatment of depression, it is possible that those RAS gene polymorphisms associated with increased RAS activity may also be associated with depression. The frequencies of common polymorphisms of genes encoding for components of the RAS, namely angiotensinogen (M235T), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (insertion, I; deletion, D), angiotensin receptor type I (A1166C), and angiotensin receptor type II (C3123A) were determined in DNA extracted from buccal cells from a Lebanese population of 132 depressed patients and their first-degree relative case-controls. The angiotensin receptor type 1 (A1166C) CC genotype was significantly associated with depression ( p = 0.036). None of the other common RAS-associated polymorphisms were significantly associated. The results support the hypothesis that increased RAS activity may increase relative risk of depression in that the angiotensin receptor type 1 (A1166C) CC genotype is associated with increased responsiveness to angiotensin II.