Claudine Salmon Through the Treaty of Nanking (1842), Britain obtained permission to trade at five "treaty ports" in China. In the following year, the USA and France decided to negotiate directly with the Manchus. The French Government appointed Théodore de Lagrené as plenipotentiary minister to sign the Treaty of Whampoa (1844). His mission was accompanied by a commercial delegation, the task of which was to investigate the commerce and the various textile industries in China and in all the countries in which the mission made a stopover. When he was in Macao and Canton, Isidore Hedde, who was especially in charge of the silk industry, observed the local craftsmen who produced export paintings; he and his colleagues decided to commission some of them to paint series depicting various industries and handcrafts, among them the silk and cotton industries. Highly satisfied with the results they obtained, while visiting Insulinde, they also looked for painters. In Manila they found Antonio D. [Malantie], whom they entrusted with the task of painting the abaca and pina textile production. The twelve watercolours he produced are now kept at the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Nothing is known about the painter, but judging from the style of his paintings, one may assume that he was a Chinese Filipino.