Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is characterized by the association of short stature; brachydactyly; joint stiffness; eye anomalies, including microspherophakia and ectopia of the lenses; and, occasionally, heart defects. We have recently mapped a gene for the autosomal recessive form of WMS to chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2, in a 12.4-cM interval. Here, we report null mutations in a member of the extracellular matrix protease family, the gene encoding ADAMTS10, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs. A total of three distinct mutations were identified in two consanguineous families and in one sporadic WMS case, including one nonsense mutation (R237X) and two splice mutations (1190+1G→A and 810+1G→A). ADAMTS10 expression studies using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, northern blot, and dot-blot analyses showed that ADAMTS10 is expressed in skin, fetal chondrocytes, and fetal and adult heart. Moreover, electron microscopy and immunological studies of the skin fibroblasts from the patients confirmed impairment of the extracellular matrix. We conclude, therefore, that ADAMTS10 plays a major role in growth and in skin, lens, and heart development in humans.