Primarily, this paper deals with the observations saying that educational sciences are facing an important task to constitute a new school theory, enriched by pedagogical analysis of computer-based teaching. The paper underlines that schools have not been prepared to face the challenges of the increasingly fast development of ICTs and new media in education. Massive use of computers and Internet helped develop a new educational technique, this of e-education. The paper discusses flexibility of this form of education as beneficiary to classical forms of education. Further on, the paper examines the pedagogical function of e-textbook. The development of e-textbook is often related to programmed textbook. Issues that have been emphasized in the paper are possibilities to reach optimal individualization and to encourage discovery learning based on students’ own activities, as well as advantages of this medium use. It has been shown that it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the conceptual design of an e-textbook and also to determine sound pedagogical bases for its didactic design.